ABS function Article Returns the absolute value of a number. The absolute value of a number is the number without its sign. Syntax ABS ( number ) Number   is the real number of whic… ACOS function Article Returns the arccosine, or inverse cosine, of a number. The arccosine is the angle whose cosine is number . The returned angle is given in radians in the range … ACOSH function Article Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number. Number must be greater than or equal to 1. The inverse hyperbolic cosine is the value whose hyperbolic cosi… AND function Article Returns the logical value TRUE if all of the arguments are TRUE; returns FALSE if one or more arguments is FALSE. Syntax AND ( logical1 , logical2 , … ) Logic… ASC function Article For Double-byte character set (DBCS) languages, changes full-width (double-byte) characters to half-width (single-byte) characters. Syntax ASC ( text ) Text   … ASIN function Article Returns the arcsine, or inverse sine, of a number. The arcsine is the angle whose sine is number . The returned angle is given in radians in the range -pi/2 to… ASINH function Article Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. The inverse hyperbolic sine is the value whose hyperbolic sine is number , so ASINH(SINH(number)) equals numb… ATAN function Article Returns the arctangent, or inverse tangent, of a number. The arctangent is the angle whose tangent is number. The returned angle is given in radians in the rang… ATAN2 function Article Returns the arctangent, or inverse tangent, of the specified x- and y-coordinates. The arctangent is the angle from the x-axis to a line containing the origin (… ATANH function Article Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. Number must be between -1 and 1 (excluding -1 and 1). The inverse hyperbolic tangent is the value whose hy… AVEDEV function Article Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean. AVEDEV is a measure of the variability in a data set. Syntax AVEDEV ( number1 ,nu… AVERAGE function Article Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the arguments. Syntax AVERAGE ( number1 , number2 , … ) Number1, number2, …   are 1 to 30 numeric arguments for wh… AVERAGEA function Article Calculates the average (arithmetic mean) of the values in the list of arguments. Unlike the AVERAGE functions, text and logical values such as TRUE and FALSE ar… BETADIST function Article Returns the cumulative beta probability distribution function. The cumulative beta probability distribution function is commonly used to study variation in the … BETAINV function Article Returns the inverse of the cumulative beta probability distribution function. That is, if probability = BETADIST(x,…), then BETAINV(probability,…) = x. The … BINOMDIST function Article Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. Use BINOMDIST in problems with a fixed number of tests or trials, when the outcomes of any trial … CEILING function Article Returns number rounded up, away from zero, to the nearest multiple of significance. For example, if you want to avoid using pennies in your prices and your prod… CHAR function Article Returns the character specified by a number. Use CHAR to translate code page numbers you might get from files on other types of computers into characters. Synta… CHIDIST function Article Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. The ?2 distribution is associated with a ?2 test. Use the ?2 test to compare observed and ex… CHIINV function Article Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. If probability = CHIDIST(x,…), then CHIINV(probability,…) = x. Use this f… CHOOSE function Article Uses index_num to return a value from the list of value arguments. Use CHOOSE to select one of up to 29 values based on the index number. For example, if value1… CLEAN function Article Removes all nonprintable characters from text. Use CLEAN on text imported from other applications that contains characters that may not print with your operatin… CODE function Article Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string. The returned code corresponds to the character set used by your computer. Syntax CODE ( text ) … CONCATENATE function Article In Microsoft SharePoint Services, use the CONCATENATE function to join several text strings into one string. CONFIDENCE function Article Returns the confidence interval for a population mean with a normal distribution. The confidence interval is a range on either side of a sample mean. For exampl… COS function Article Returns the cosine of the given angle. Syntax COS ( number ) Number   is the angle in radians for which you want the cosine. Remark If the angle is in degrees, … COSH function Article Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. Syntax COSH ( number ) Number   is any real number for which you want to find the hyperbolic cosine. Remark The formu… COUNT function Article Counts the number of arguments that contain numbers. Syntax COUNT ( value1 , value2 , … ) Value1, value2, …   are 1 to 30 arguments that can contain or refe… COUNTA function Article Counts the number of arguments that are not empty. Syntax COUNTA ( value1 , value2 , … ) Value1, value2, …   are 1 to 30 arguments representing the values … CRITBINOM function Article Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to a criterion value. Use this function for quality assurance… DATE function Article Returns the sequential serial number that represents a particular date. Syntax DATE ( year , month , day ) Year   The year argument can be one to four digits. … DATEDIF function Article Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is provided for compatibility with Lotus 1-2-3. Syntax DATEDIF ( start_date , e… DATEVALUE function Article Returns the serial number of the date represented by date_text. Use DATEVALUE to convert a date represented by text to a serial number. Syntax DATEVALUE ( date_… DAY function Article Returns the day of a date, represented by a serial number. The day is given as an integer ranging from 1 to 31. Syntax DAY ( serial_number ) Serial_number   is … DAYS360 function Article Returns the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months), which is used in some accounting calculations. Use this function to… DDB function Article Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the double-declining balance method or some other method you specify. Syntax DDB ( cost , salv… DEGREES function Article Converts radians into degrees. Syntax DEGREES ( angle ) Angle   is the angle in radians that you want to convert. Example Formula Description (Result) =DEGREES(… DEVSQ function Article Returns the sum of squares of deviations of data points from their sample mean. Syntax DEVSQ ( number1 , number2 , … ) Number1,number2, …   are 1 to 30 argu… DOLLAR function Article Converts a number to text using currency format, with the decimals rounded to the specified place. The format used is \$#,##0.00_);(\$#,##0.00). Syntax DOLLAR ( n… EVEN function Article Returns number rounded up to the nearest even integer. You can use this function for processing items that come in twos. For example, a packing crate accepts ro… EXACT function Article Compares two text strings and returns the logical value TRUE if they are exactly the same, FALSE otherwise. EXACT is case-sensitive. Use EXACT to test text bein… EXP function Article Returns e raised to the power of number. The constant e equals 2.71828182845904, the base of the natural logarithm. Syntax EXP ( number ) Number   is the expone… EXPONDIST function Article Returns the exponential distribution. Use EXPONDIST to model the time between events, such as how long an automated bank teller takes to deliver cash. For examp… FACT function Article Returns the factorial of a number. The factorial of a number is equal to 1*2*3*…* number. Syntax FACT ( number ) Number   is the nonnegative number you want t… FALSE function Article Returns the logical value FALSE. Syntax FALSE ( ) Remark You can also type the word FALSE directly into the formula, and it is interpreted as the logical valu… FDIST function Article Returns the F probability distribution. You can use this function to determine whether two data sets have different degrees of diversity. For example, you can e… FIND function Article Finds one text string (find_text) within another text string (within_text), and returns the number of the starting position of find_text, from the first charact… FINV function Article Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. If p = FDIST(x,…), then FINV(p,…) = x. The F distribution can be used in an F-test that compares the … FISHER function Article Returns the Fisher transformation at x. This transformation produces a function that is approximately normally distributed rather than skewed. Use this function… FISHERINV function Article Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation. Use this transformation when analyzing correlations between ranges or arrays of data. If y = FISHER(x), then F… FIXED function Article Rounds a number to the specified number of decimals, formats the number in decimal format using a period and commas, and returns the result as text. Syntax FIXE… FLOOR function Article Rounds number down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple of significance. Syntax FLOOR ( number , significance ) Number   is the numeric value you want to round… FV function Article Returns the future value of an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate. Syntax FV ( rate , nper , pmt , pv , type ) For a m… GAMMADIST function Article Returns the gamma distribution. You can use this function to study variables that may have a skewed distribution. The gamma distribution is commonly used in que… GAMMAINV function Article Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. If p = GAMMADIST(x,…), then GAMMAINV(p,…) = x. You can use this function to study a variable whose… GAMMALN function Article Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, ?(x). Syntax GAMMALN ( x ) X   is the value for which you want to calculate GAMMALN. Remarks If x is nonnum… GEOMEAN function Article Returns the geometric mean of positive data. For example, you can use GEOMEAN to calculate average growth rate given compound interest with variable rates. Synt… HARMEAN function Article Returns the harmonic mean of a data set. The harmonic mean is the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of reciprocals. Syntax HARMEAN ( number1 , number2 , … ) N… HOUR function Article Returns the hour of a time value. The hour is given as an integer, ranging from 0 (12:00 A.M.) to 23 (11:00 P.M.). Syntax HOUR ( serial_number ) Serial_number  … HYPGEOMDIST function Article Returns the hypergeometric distribution. HYPGEOMDIST returns the probability of a given number of sample successes, given the sample size, population successes,… IF function Article Returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE and another value if it evaluates to FALSE. Use IF to conduct conditional tests on values and for… INT function Article Rounds a number down to the nearest integer. Syntax INT ( number ) Number   is the real number you want to round down to an integer. Example 1 Formula Descripti… IPMT function Article Returns the interest payment for a given period for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate. For a more complete descrip… IS functions Article This article describes the eight functions used for testing the type of a value or column reference. Each of these functions, referred to collectively as the I… ISPMT function Article Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment. Syntax ISPMT ( rate , per , nper , pv ) Rate   is the interest rate for the investment…. KURT function Article Returns the kurtosis of a data set. Kurtosis characterizes the relative peakedness or flatness of a distribution compared with the normal distribution. Positive… LEFT function Article LEFT returns the first character or characters in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify. Syntax LEFT ( text , num_chars ) Text   is the t… LEN function Article LEN returns the number of characters in a text string. Syntax LEN ( text ) Text   is the text whose length you want to find. Spaces count as characters. Example… LN function Article Returns the natural logarithm of a number. Natural logarithms are based on the constant e (2.71828182845904). Syntax LN ( number ) Number   is the positive real… LOG function Article Returns the logarithm of a number to the base you specify. Syntax LOG ( number , base ) Number   is the positive real number for which you want the logarithm. B… LOG10 function Article Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number. Syntax LOG10 ( number ) Number   is the positive real number for which you want the base-10 logarithm. Examples Formu… LOGINV function Article Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard_dev. If p = LO… LOGNORMDIST function Article Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with the parameters mean and standard_dev. Use this function to analyze … LOWER function Article Converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase. Syntax LOWER ( text ) Text   is the text you want to convert to lowercase. LOWER does not change c… MAX function Article Returns the largest value in a set of values. Syntax MAX ( number1 , number2 , … ) Number1,number2,…   are 1 to 30 numbers for which you want to find the ma… MAXA function Article Returns the largest value in a list of arguments. Text and logical values such as TRUE and FALSE are compared as well as numbers. MAXA is similar to MINA. For m… Me function Article Returns the current user name. Syntax Me Remark The Me function can be used only with default values; you cannot use the Me function in a calculated column. MEDIAN function Article Returns the median of the given numbers. The median is the number in the middle of a set of numbers; that is, half the numbers have values that are greater than… MID function Article MID returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify, based on the number of characters you specify. Syntax MID … MIN function Article Returns the smallest number in a set of values. Syntax MIN ( number1 , number2 , … ) Number1, number2,…   are 1 to 30 numbers for which you want to find the… MINA function Article Returns the smallest value in the list of arguments. Text and logical values such as TRUE and FALSE are compared as well as numbers. Syntax MINA ( value1 , valu… MINUTE function Article Returns the minutes of a time value. The minute is given as an integer, ranging from 0 to 59. Syntax MINUTE ( serial_number ) Serial_number   is the time that … MOD function Article Returns the remainder after number is divided by divisor. The result has the same sign as divisor. Syntax MOD ( number , divisor ) Number   is the number for wh… MODE function Article Returns the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, value in the argument list. Like MEDIAN, MODE is a location measure. Syntax MODE ( number1 , number2 , …… MONTH function Article Returns the month of a date represented by a serial number. The month is given as an integer, ranging from 1 (January) to 12 (December). Syntax MONTH ( serial_n… NEGBINOMDIST function Article Returns the negative binomial distribution. NEGBINOMDIST returns the probability that there will be number_f failures before the number_s-th success, when the c… NORMDIST function Article Returns the normal distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation. This function has a very wide range of applications in statistics, including hypo… NORMINV function Article Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation. Syntax NORMINV ( probability , mean , standard_dev ) Pr… NORMSDIST function Article Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution function. The distribution has a mean of 0 (zero) and a standard deviation of one. Use this function in plac… NORMSINV function Article Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. The distribution has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. Syntax NORMSINV ( proba… NOT function Article Reverses the value of its argument. Use NOT when you want to make sure a value is not equal to one particular value. Syntax NOT ( logical ) Logical   is a value… NPER function Article Returns the number of periods for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate. Syntax NPER ( rate , pmt , pv , fv , type ) F… NPV function Article Calculates the net present value of an investment by using a discount rate and a series of future payments (negative values) and income (positive values). Synta… ODD function Article Returns number rounded up to the nearest odd integer. Syntax ODD ( number ) Number   is the value to round. Remarks If number is nonnumeric, ODD returns the #VA… OR function Article Returns Yes if any argument is TRUE; returns No if all arguments are FALSE. Syntax OR ( logical1 , logical2 , … ) Logical1, logical2,…   are 1 to 30 conditi… PI function Article Returns the number 3.14159265358979, the mathematical constant pi, accurate to 15 digits. Syntax PI () Examples Formula Description (Result) =PI() Pi (3.1415926… PMT function Article Calculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate. Syntax PMT ( rate , nper , pv , fv , type ) For a more complete descr… POISSON function Article Returns the Poisson distribution. A common application of the Poisson distribution is predicting the number of events over a specific time, such as the number o… POWER function Article Returns the result of a number raised to a power. Syntax POWER ( number , power ) Number   is the base number. It can be any real number. Power   is the exponen… PPMT function Article Returns the payment on the principal for a given period for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate. Syntax PPMT ( rate … PRODUCT function Article Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product. Syntax PRODUCT ( number1 , number2 , … ) Number1, number2,…   are 1 to 30 numbers tha… PROPER function Article Capitalizes the first letter and any other letters that follow a non-letter character in a text string. Converts all other letters in the text string to lowerca… PV function Article Returns the present value of an investment. The present value is the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now. For example, when you borrow mo… RADIANS function Article Converts degrees to radians. Syntax RADIANS ( angle ) Angle   is an angle in degrees that you want to convert. Example Formula Description (Result) =RADIANS(270… RATE function Article Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity. RATE is calculated by iteration and can have zero or more solutions. If the successive results of RATE do no… REPLACE function Article REPLACE replaces part of a text string, based on the number of characters you specify, with a different text string. Syntax REPLACE ( old_text , start_num , num… REPT function Article Repeats text a given number of times. Use REPT to add a number of instances of a text string. Syntax REPT ( text , number_times ) Text   is the text you want to… RIGHT function Article RIGHT returns the last characters in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify. Syntax RIGHT ( text , num_chars ) Text   is the text string c… ROMAN function Article Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text. Syntax ROMAN ( number , form ) Number   is the arabic numeral you want converted. Form   is a number specifying t… ROUND function Article Rounds a number to a specified number of digits. Syntax ROUND ( number , num_digits ) Number  Is the number you want to round. Num_digits  Specifies the number … ROUNDDOWN function Article Rounds a number down, toward zero. Syntax ROUNDDOWN ( number , num_digits ) Number   is any real number that you want rounded down. Num_digits   is the number o… ROUNDUP function Article Rounds a number up, away from 0 (zero). Syntax ROUNDUP ( number , num_digits ) Number   is any real number that you want rounded up. Num_digits   is the number … SEARCH function Article SEARCH returns the number of the character at which a specific character or text string is first found, beginning with start_num. Use SEARCH to determine the lo… SECOND function Article Returns the seconds of a time value. The second is given as an integer in the range 0 (zero) to 59. Syntax SECOND ( serial_number ) Serial_number   is the time… SIGN function Article Determines the sign of a number. Returns 1 if the number is positive, zero (0) if the number is 0, and -1 if the number is negative. Syntax SIGN ( number ) Numb… SIN function Article Returns the sine of the given angle. Syntax SIN ( number ) Number   is the angle in radians for which you want the sine. Remark If your argument is in degrees, … SINH function Article Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number. Syntax SINH ( number ) Number   is any real number. Remark The formula for the hyperbolic sine is: Example set 1 Formul… SKEW function Article Returns the skewness of a distribution. Skewness characterizes the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean. Positive skewness indicates a distribu… SLN function Article Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period. Syntax SLN ( cost , salvage , life ) Cost   is the initial cost of the asset. Salvage   is t… SQRT function Article Returns a positive square root. Syntax SQRT ( number ) Number   is the number for which you want the square root. Remark If number is negative, SQRT returns the… STANDARDIZE function Article Returns a normalized value from a distribution characterized by mean and standard_dev. Syntax STANDARDIZE ( x , mean , standard_dev ) X   is the value you want … STDEV function Article Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean). Syntax… STDEVA function Article Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean). Text a… STDEVP function Article Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the… STDEVPA function Article Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments, including text and logical values. The standard deviation is a measure of how w… SUM function Article Adds all the numbers in the specified arguments. Syntax SUM ( number1 , number2 , … ) Number1, number2,…   are 1 to 30 arguments for which you want the tota… SUMSQ function Article Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments. Syntax SUMSQ ( number1 , number2 , … ) Number1, number2,…   are 1 to 30 arguments for which you want the su… SYD function Article Returns the sum-of-years’ digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period. Syntax SYD ( cost , salvage , life , per ) Cost   is the initial cost of the a… T function Article Returns the text referred to by value. Syntax T ( value ) Value   is the value you want to test. Remarks If value is or refers to text, T returns value. If valu… TAN function Article Returns the tangent of the given angle. Syntax TAN ( number ) Number   is the angle in radians for which you want the tangent. Remark If your argument is in deg… TANH function Article Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number. Syntax TANH ( number ) Number   is any real number. Remark The formula for the hyperbolic tangent is: Examples Formu… TDIST function Article Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution where a numeric value (x) is a calculated value of t for which the Percentage Points … TEXT function Article Converts a value to text in a specific number format. Syntax TEXT ( value , format_text ) Value   is a numeric value, a formula that evaluates to a numeric valu… TIME function Article Returns the decimal number for a particular time. The decimal number returned by TIME is a value ranging from 0 (zero) to 0.99999999, representing the times fro… TIMEVALUE function Article Returns the decimal number of the time represented by a text string. The decimal number is a value ranging from 0 (zero) to 0.99999999, representing the times f… TINV function Article Returns the t-value of the Student’s t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom. Syntax TINV ( probability , degrees_freedom ) P… TODAY function Article Returns the serial number of the current date. The serial number is the date-time code used for date and time calculations. You can use the TODAY function only … TRIM function Article Removes all spaces from text except for single spaces between words. Use TRIM on text that you have received from another application that may have irregular sp… TRUE function Article Returns the logical value TRUE. Syntax TRUE () Remark You can enter the value TRUE directly without using this function. The TRUE function is provided primarily… TRUNC function Article Truncates a number to an integer by removing the fractional part of the number. Syntax TRUNC ( number , num_digits ) Number   is the number you want to truncate… UPPER function Article Converts text to uppercase. Syntax UPPER ( text ) Text   is the text you want converted to uppercase. Text can be a column reference or text string. Example For… USDOLLAR function Article Converts a number to text using currency format, with the decimals rounded to the specified place. The format used is \$#,##0.00_);(\$#,##0.00). Syntax USDOLLAR (… VALUE function Article Converts a text string that represents a number to a number. Syntax VALUE ( text ) Text   is the text enclosed in quotation marks or a column reference containi… VAR function Article Estimates variance based on a sample. Syntax VAR ( number1 , number2 , … ) Number1,number2,…   are 1 to 30 number arguments corresponding to a sample of a p… VARA function Article Estimates variance based on a sample. In addition to numbers, text and logical values such as TRUE and FALSE are included in the calculation. Syntax VARA ( valu… VARP function Article Calculates variance based on the entire population. Syntax VARP ( number1 , number2 , … ) Number1,number2, …   are 1 to 30 number arguments corresponding t… VARPA function Article Calculates variance based on the entire population. In addition to numbers, text and logical values such as TRUE and FALSE are included in the calculation. Synt… WEEKDAY function Article Returns the day of the week corresponding to a date. The day is given as an integer, ranging from 1 (Sunday) to 7 (Saturday), by default. Syntax WEEKDAY ( seria… WEIBULL function Article Returns the Weibull distribution. Use this distribution in reliability analysis, such as calculating a device’s mean time to failure. Syntax WEIBULL ( x , alpha… YEAR function Article Returns the year corresponding to a date. Syntax YEAR ( serial_number ) Serial_number   is the date of the year you want to find. Remarks Dates are stored as se…